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Cryptosporidium

Test Code: C65008

Clinical Utility

This assay is only available as part of a panel and cannot be ordered individually.

The Cryptosporidium parasite causes disease in humans through ingestion of infectious oocysts in contaminated water or food, and by direct contact with fecal material from individuals or animals actively shedding oocysts.1,2 Two species of Cryptosporidium cause disease in humans, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. C. hominis is more prevalent in the US, South America, Australia, and Africa, while C. parvum accounts for most cases in Europe. Along with Giardia, Cryptosporidium is the most common parasitic cause of diarrheal illness in the US and other developed nations.3 In 2010, the incidence of Cryptosporidium in the US was 5.1 per 100,000.4 The main symptom of Cryptosporidium infection is voluminous diarrhea lasting one to 14 days, often accompanied by abdominal cramps, fatigue, vomiting, fever, and malaise. Immunocompromised individuals can develop severe cases of C. parvum infection with profuse, cholera-like diarrhea.2

References

1.  Chako CZ, Tyler JW, Schultz LG, Chiguma L, Beernsten BT. Cryptosporidiosis in people: it's not just about the cows. J Vet Intern Med. 2010 Jan-Feb:24(1):37-43.

2.  Yoder JS, Harrat C, Beach MJ, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cryptosporidiosis surveillance - United States, 2006-2008. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2010 Jun 11:59(6):1-14.

3.  Pawlowski SW, Warren CA, Guerrant R. Diagnosis and treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 2009 May: 136(6):1874-86.

4.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 U.S. sites, 1996-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jun 10;60(22):749-55.

Disclaimer

Specimens are approved for testing in New York only when indicated in the Specimen Information field above.

The CPT codes provided are based on Viracor-IBT's interpretation of the American Medical Association's Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and are provided for general informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Questions regarding coding should be addressed to your local Medicare carrier. Viracor-IBT assumes no responsibility for billing errors due to reliance on the CPT codes illustrated in this material.

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