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Salmonella

Test Code: J65008

Clinical Utility

This assay is only available as part of a panel and cannot be ordered individually.

Salmonella are Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. There are two species of Salmonella, Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori that include over 2,500 different serotypes.1 The majority of the pathogenic serotypes of Salmonella that affect humans are within the species of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica). Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the US, causing approximately 1.2 million infections annually.2,3 Worldwide, Salmonella species causes an estimated 93.8 million cases of gastroenteritis each year.4 In 2009, salmonellosis was the second most commonly reported zoonotic disease in humans in the EU with a seasonal peak in the number of Salmonella cases observed during the late summer and early autumn.5 However, Salmonella was the number one causative agent in foodborne outbreaks in the EU. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium accounted for most of the reported cases in the US, EU and Canada in 2009.5-7 While S. enterica serotype Enteritidis remained the most common isolate reported by FoodNet in the U.S. in 2010, S. enterica serotype Newport was the second most common isolate with S. enterica serotype Typhimurium a close third.3 Symptoms of salmonellosis include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.4

References

1.  Crum-Cianflone NF. Salmonellosis and the gastrointestinal tract: more than just peanut butter. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2008 Aug:10(4):424-31.

2.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Salmonella Surveillance Overview. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. 2011. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nationalsurveillance/PDFs/NationalSalmSurveillOverview_508.pdf.

3.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital Signs: Incidence and Trends of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 1996-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jun 10;60(22):749-55.

4.  Sanchez-Vargas FM, Abu-El-Haija MA, Gomex-Duarte OG. Salmonella infections: An update on epidemiology, management, and prevention. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2011 Nov:9(6):263-277.

5.  European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.  The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Foodborne Outbreaks in 2009. EFSA Journal 2011. 2011;9(3):2090. [378pp.]  Available online: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2090.htm.

6.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Salmonella Surveillance Annual Data Summary, 2009. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. 2011. Available from:http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/PDFs/salmonella-annual-summary-2009-508c.pdf.

7.  National Enteric Surveillance Program (NESP). Annual Summary of Laboratory Surveillance Data for Enteric Pathogens in Canada. Public Health Agency of Canada.  Available from: http://www.nml-lnm.gc.ca/NESP-PNSME/assets/pdf/NESP_2009_Annual_Report_ENG.pdf.

 

Disclaimer

Specimens are approved for testing in New York only when indicated in the Specimen Information field above.

The CPT codes provided are based on Viracor-IBT's interpretation of the American Medical Association's Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and are provided for general informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Questions regarding coding should be addressed to your local Medicare carrier. Viracor-IBT assumes no responsibility for billing errors due to reliance on the CPT codes illustrated in this material.

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